The majority believed this pathway helped engage women motivated to quit and offered a unique chance to impart smoking cessation knowledge to hard to reach women, who might not otherwise contact SSS. An unexpected issue arose during implementation “dealing with non smokers with high CO readings. Conclusions: According to staff, the opt out referral pathway is an acceptable addition to routine antenatal care.
Background: Recruitment to clinical trials is difficult with many trials failing to recruit to target and within time. Embedding trials of recruitment interventions within host trials may provide a successful way to improve this. There are no guidelines for reporting such embedded methodology trials.
At 96 weeks, 89 (58%) participants in the psychoeducation group had experienced a next bipolar episode compared with 98 (65%) participants in the peer support group; time to next bipolar episode did not differ between groups (hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.62 “1.11; p=0.217). Planned moderator analysis showed that psychoeducation was most beneficial in participants with few (one to seven) previous bipolar episodes (2; HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.12 “0.68; p=0.034). Optimum provision of structured psychological interventions, such as group psychoeducation, early in the course of bipolar disorder might have important benefits on the course of illness, and merits further research..
As these movements were unfolding, music expanded into the university, where musicology was established as a scholarly discipline leading to university degrees. Two of the first music professors to accede to powerful positions in academic institutions, Hermann Kretzschmar in Berlin and Sir Hubert Parry in London and Oxford, both believed that art music should remain exclusive, but for almost diametrically opposite reasons. Their different views help us understand the complexity of the possibilities, at the outset, for academic musicology to mediate between music and the public and bridge the great divide..